A contract in which the owner of the garden shares its produce with another person in return for his services in irrigating the garden.
A contract in which one person agrees to till the land of the other person in return for a part of the produce of the land.
Qard Hasan (Interest free loans)
Most of the Islamic banks also provide interest free loans (Qard Hasan) to their customers. If this practice is not possible on a significant scale, even then, it is adopted at least to cover some needy people. Islamic view about loan (Qard) is that it should be given to borrower free of charge.
Gambling. Technically, an agreement in which possession of a property is contingent upon the occurrence of an uncertain event. By implication it applies to those agreements in which there is a definite loss for one party and definite gain for the other without specifying which party will gain and which party will lose.
This term literally means an increase or addition. Technically it denotes any increase or advantage obtained by the lender as a condition of the loan. Any risk-free or "guaranteed" rate of return on a loan or investment is riba. Riba, in all forms, is prohibited in Islam. In conventional terms, riba and "interest" are used interchangeably.
Shariah / Sharia / Shari'a
Islamic canon law derived from 3 Primary sources: the Quran; the Hadith (sayings of the Prophet Muhammad); and the Sunnah (practice and traditions of the Prophet Muhammad), and three Secondary sources Qiyas (Analogical deductions and reasoning), Ijma (Consensus of Islamic Scholars) and Ijtihad (Legal reasoning).
A contract between two or more persons who launch a business or financial enterprise to make profit. Shirka = musharaka.
A banking instrument used for the delegation of credit and was used to collect taxes, disburse government dues and transfer funds by merchants. In some cases suftajahs were payable at a future fixed date and in other cases they were payable on sight. Suftajah is distinct from the modem bill of exchange in some respects. Firstly, a sum of money transferred by suftajah had to keep its identity and payment had to be made in the same currency. Exchange of currencies could not take place in this case. Secondly, Suftajah usually involved three persons. 'A' pays a certain sum of money to 'B' for agreeing to give an order to 'C' to pay back to 'A'. Third, a Suftajahs could be endorsed.
A certificate entitling the holder to the benefits of the income stream of the assets backing the certificate. Equivalent to a Fixed income bond.
This is a form of Islamic insurance based on the Quranic principle of Ta'awon or mutual assistance. It provides mutual protection of assets and property and offers joint risk sharing in the event of a loss by one of its members. Takaful is similar to mutual insurance in that members are the insurers as well as the insured. Conventional insurance is prohibited in Islam because its dealings contain several haram elements including gharar and riba, as mentioned above.
Detention. Technically appropriation or tying-up of a property in perpetuity so that no propriety rights can be exercised over the usufruct. The Waqf property can neither be sold nor inherited or donated to anyone. Awqaf consists of religious foundations set up for the benefit of the poor.
A tax which is prescribed by Islam on all persons having wealth above an exemption limit at a rate fixed by the Shariah. According to the Islamic belief Zakah purifies wealth and souls. The objective is to take away a part of the wealth of the well-to-do and to distribute it among the poor and the needy. It is levied on cash, cattle, agricultural produce, minerals, capital invested in industry, and business etc. The distribution of Zakah fund has been laid down in the Qur'an (9:60) and is for the poor, the needy, Zakah collectors, new converts to Islam, travellers in difficulty, captives and debtors etc. It is payable if the owner is a Muslim and sane. Zakah is the third pillar of Islam. It is an obligatory contribution which every well-off Muslim is required to pay to the Islamic state, in the absence of which individuals are required to distribute the Zakah among the poor and the needy as prescribed by the Shariah.
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